Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Text of Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address In November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln was invited to deliver remarks at the dedication of a cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, which had raged in the Pennsylvania countryside for three days during the previous July. Lincoln used the opportunity to write a brief yet thoughtful speech. With the Civil War in its third year the nation was enduring a staggering cost in human life, and Lincoln felt compelled to offer a moral justification for the war. He deftly connected the founding of the nation with the war to keep it united, called for a new birth of freedom, and ended by expressing his ideal vision for the American government. The Gettysburg Address was delivered by Lincoln on November 19, 1863. Text of Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address: Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that this nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Discuss the current impact of health informatics in health care. Consider the role of these systems in maintaing patient safety and ensuring that a high standar - Essay Example Coverage of information technology solutions in the medical and health field under the rubrics of the two terms is converging. Computers in Health Care are well accepted the world over as clinical and diagnostic aids, to improve patient care, tone up administration, facilitate accounting and enable effective management control. An important application has been in hospital management, where computers have been an effective tool for doctors, nursing, administration and management. The federal government, through the Australian Department of Health and Ageing, sets national health policies and subsidises the provision of health services by State and Territory governments and the private sector. Health currently accounts for about 9.3 per cent of Australias gross domestic product. Australia has a fairly complex healthcare system, comprising both public and private hospitals and medical practitioners and literally dozens of insurance schemes set up to fund them. The federal government funds universal medical services and pharmaceuticals, and gives financial assistance to public hospitals, residential care facilities, hostels, and home and community care. It is also the major source of funds for health research, and provides support for the training of health professionals and financial assistance to tertiary students.Ã State and Territory governments have primary responsibility under the Constitution for the actual provision of health services, including most acute and psychiatric hospital services. The States and Territories also provide a wide range of community and public health services, including school health, dental health, maternal and child health, occupational health, disease control activities and a variety of health inspection functions.Ã The main health responsibilities of local government are in environmental control such as garbage disposal, clean water, and health
Thursday, February 6, 2020
FedEx Strategy at the Business, Corporate, and Network Levels - Term Paper Example Federal Express' clients ranged from large scale business to individual customers that required a wide range of services. As such, Federal Express needed to find a way to meet the needs of the various groups of customers that it provided services to. By streamlining its operations and by integrating its various systems, the company was able to develop a customer logistics management segment of its business to cater especially to its large-scale business clients that required such service (Conley et al, 2000). This included providing warehousing and distribution services that cut the costs for its business customers. Such strategy demonstrates the company's way of dealing with the paradox of market adaptation and resource leveraging. Having identified the needs of its clientele, FedEx used the extensive resource base it had in order to meet these needs. Since the company had established a logistics infrastructure, it merely put to good use the resources it already had. Federal Express understood the value of information for all its clients. As such, it continuously searched for various ways to improve the transfer of information between itself and its customers. Even before the FedEx website was launched in 1994, the company had already developed a number of computer programs and systems that allowed customers to acquire the information they needed regarding shipments including ordering and tracking. This is another demonstration of the company's ability to use its resources in order to adapt to the demands in the market. Since the demand was for better information sources, FedEx used its IT expertise in order to come up with a system that meets such needs.The acquisition became the strategy to better meet the needs of Federal Express Customers. After officially acquiring Parts Bank in 1988, FedEx, later on, acquired Caliber Systems in 1998. This enabled FedEx to create a corporation which had the ability to meet most, if not all, of the logistics and transportation needs of companies. Furthermore, FedEx underwent a process of reorganization wherein certain subsidiaries were combined.
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The United States of America Essay A glimpse of the multiple experiences of the author truly negates the circumstance that the United States of America has undergone for the past years and at this moment in time. There were several occurrences that the citizens felt that there is a bit change the way the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s system is running which positively affects their manner of living. As the author, Anthony Burgess touches quite a few areas of Politics and Religion in his masterpiece Ã¢â¬Å"Is America Falling Apart? Ã¢â¬ he provide his readers a sense of sensuality as regards to dealing life and accept the practical world of transformation hand in hand with an articulate connotation of being realistic not just have an animalistic point of views. Burgess started his inscription in such a straightforward approach of looking back to things he had experienced when he stayed for about a year in New Jersey, and now that he came home to Bracciano, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but notice a huge difference towards the system he perceived of proliferating the system of life and living a gay but practical existence. Given the fact that it was quite hard to tackle living in an unstable realm together with harsh approach of survival, the author still paved a way of appreciating what life could have been if there is something to look forward to, Ã¢â¬Å"the quality of life has nothing to do with the quantity of brand names, what matter is talk, family, cheap wine in an open air, the wrestling of minimal sweetness but of the long-known bitterness of livingÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 286). The Author extremely enlightens his readers on how the United States of America deals with life Ã¢â¬â and that is full of extravagant material things which sometimes not necessary in building a true meaning of living. It has been said that in a year or two, the possessions that we have could be easily replaced due to a very fast paced transition of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s in and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s hot and certainly, these material possession would leave us with nothing but just a temporary and fake notion of fame, Ã¢â¬Å"Let me stay for a while on this subject of consumption. American individualism, on the face of it an admirable philosophy, wishes to manifest itself in independence of the community. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t share things in common; you have your own things. A familyÃ¢â¬â¢s strength is signalized by its possessionsÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 287). You can easily sense that the author wishes to embark with its readers the realization of what life is all about giving emphasis on the platform that the realm he had been for quite sometime shares a positive impact of being realistic. Not all our naked eyes can reach is imperative to adopt in our system, we also need to scrutinize things and know what we really need and not just coping with what we desire, Ã¢â¬Å"America made me develop new appetites in order to make proper use of the supermarketsÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 287). Bits and pieces around us can truly fascinate our subsistence but it is still in our discretion on how we say no to what we believe is not essential for us. The author epitomized how such thing made him feel as to what extent his self discipline reaches his soul Ã¢â¬â a good point to consider in dealing with life in order to proliferate. As we grasp the first statement of Anthony Burgess in his first paragraph, noticeably, he was depressed as he brings to mind together with his arrival in Bracciano the negative atmosphere of an unstable Italian government and a disheartening mode of living, Ã¢â¬Å"I find the Italian government still unstable, gasoline more expensive than anywhere in the world, butches and bank clerks and tobacconist ready to go on strikeÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 286). But as we approach the second paragraph, he revived his negative statements as he tries to put some positive air of giving hope, Ã¢â¬Å"It is delightful to be back. People are underpaid but they go through an act of liking their work, the open market are luscious with esculent color, the community is more is more important than the state, the human condition is humorously acceptedÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 286). A fastidious alteration of a structure wherein the readers would not just suffer the feeling of depression but at the same time it gives hope to find courage in battling what life has to offer as well as what our nation has in store for us. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s chose of style mutually with the use of language tends to adopt unfathomable terminology which translate to its reader to go deep as well which leads them to have intense feelings as regard to the controversy of the subject matter, Ã¢â¬Å"Consumption, on one level, is turning insipid, especially as the quality of the artifacts themselves seem to be deteriorating. Planned obsolescence is not conducive to pride in workmanshipÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 288). The structure of the essay exemplifies a voice of echoing scream of transformation in lieu of the way the nation lead its people. Practically, the usage of comparison connotes a strong hold to the statement that would merely strike the emotions of its readers. The effectiveness of the arrival of syntax was such of great use in terms of embodying the premise of the author, Ã¢â¬Å"A character in Evelyn WaughÃ¢â¬â¢s Put Out More Flags said that the difference between prewar and postwar life was that, prewar, if one thing went wrong the day was ruined: postwar, if one thing went right the day would be made. America is a prewar country, psychologically unprepared for one thing to go wrong. Now everything seems to be going wrong. Hence, the neurosis despair, the Kafka feeling that the whole marvelous fabric of American life is coming apart at the seams. Italy is used to everything going wrong. This is what the human condition is aboutÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 287). Intensely, the Burgess conveys how America seems to approach the downfall if it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t responsible enough to prepare for what unexpected occurrence will come transversely. Analogous to this, the strength of the words seems to hit the heart of the readers as it is very unyielding as the author stresses how the norm of the United States of America seems to be alike with other nation, which in turn leaves a mark of doubt and fear if it really shares a positive impact, Ã¢â¬Å"America is no longer EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter nor her rich stepmother; she is EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s sister. The agony that America is undergoing is not to be associated with breakdown so much with the parturition of self-knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 290). The relentless insights of Anthony Burgess indeed provide an enormous impact to its reader. We cannot deny the fact that his masterpiece was truly a focal deliberation of passionate clamor for transformation and readiness to what may come at hand. He uses diverse area of discussion such as Religion, Politics and even Literature. Ã¢â¬Å"America was built on a rejection of the past. Even the basic Christianity which was brought to the continent in 1620 was of a novel and bizarre kind that would have nothing to do with great Rank River of belief that produced Dante and Michelangelo. America as a nation has never been able to settle to a common belief more sophisticated than the dangerous naivete of the Declaration of IndependenceÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 289). It was believed that there was something far beyond producing money and proliferate the luxurious material possessions that the people have in their homes. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot to explore like that of the Religion that will give the people a strong faith which will help them better to achieve the abundance that they really want in their lives. Political arena comes to mind as well as Burgess stressed how powerful the United States of America had become during the past years which give them the height of admiration, Ã¢â¬Å"When Europe, after millennia of war, rapine, slavery, famine, intolerance, had sunk to the level of a sewer, America became the golden dreams, the Eden where innocence could be recoveredÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 289). Accordingly, as we have been saying all through out the paper, the hope that eventually, everything will be put in its proper place and that the transformation and change will be put into account, not just have a one track of doing what we want Ã¢â¬â doing what the leaders want in their realm Ã¢â¬â maybe then a bright day full of hopes and dreams will inspire every individual in the nation that they belong, as the literary text expound Ã¢â¬Å"ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s period was one of poverty, unemployment, ghastly inflation, violence in the streets. Twenty-six years after his death there was a bloody civil war, followed by a dictatorship of religious fanatics, followed by a calm respite in which the seeds of a revolution were sown. England survived. America will surviveÃ¢â¬ (Burgess, 290). Anthony Burgess gives us a very good way of enlightenment Ã¢â¬â a profound illumination for America to have a clamor for change as well as a vibrant implementation of platforms that they have in order to propagate their nation.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Plato and Aristotle Plato and Aristotle have two distinct views on wellness. However, each manÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on wellness is directly tied in to his respective opinions on the idea of imitation as a form of knowledge. Their appreciation or lack thereof for tragedy is in fact directly correlated to their own perspective on wellness and emotion. Firstly, it is important to consider each manÃ¢â¬â¢s view of wellnessÃ¢â¬âthat is how does each man go about addressing emotional stability. One important consideration is the approach Plato takes in relation to Aristotle. It is this approach that we will see actually mirroring between how they treat emotional well-being and their tolerance for imitation. In order to understand this hypothesis that each thinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s handling of wellness is representative of how they handle imitation (and thus, representation), we need to step back and examine how in fact each gentleman approaches the question of emotional stability and happiness. For Plato, as defined in the Ã¢â¬Å"RepublicÃ¢â¬ , emotion is to be suppressed. Speaking of poetry, he says: Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢d be right, then to delete the lamentations of famous menÃ¢â¬ (63). The idea of deletion is exactly what he is after. Taking something quite real, very much a part of the present moment, and with the swipe of an eraser, dimissing it as gone. In poetry, it is called deletion, and the words are no longer on the page. In psychology, it is called repression, and the concepts suggested for deletion are instead relegated to swell in the caverns of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Plato speaks of emotion in poetry at other times as something we should Ã¢â¬Å"expungeÃ¢â¬ (61). Again, entrenched in his linguistics is a conscious hat tip to repression, to keeping emotionÃ¢â¬âbe that joy, sadness, despairÃ¢â¬âout of highe... ...fact directly linked to his understanding of wellness, and the need to have an emotional release as a part of that wellness. What can then be steeped out of these observations? It becomes apparent that Plato and Aristotle do in fact have different views on how to reconcile wellness and these different views are directly linked to their approach to imitation. For Plato, who believes in Ã¢â¬ËdeletingÃ¢â¬â¢ and suppressing emotion, imitation is a device much too emotional for his support. The Aristotelian view that emotion is in fact a natural part of life, knowledge, and our own wellness translates in to his acceptance (if not always full embrace) of imitation. While different, the two men reconcile the problems of wellness in terms of the knowledge they deem acceptable. Works Cited Plato. Republic. Translated by Grube, G.M.A. Hackett. Second Ed. Indianapolis, 1992.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Professor OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill Atlantic Worlds II April 16th 2010 Characterizing the First World War as an epidemic of miscalculation, President John F. Kennedy pondered, Ã¢â¬Å"they somehow seemed to tumble into war Ã¢â¬ ¦ through stupidity, individual idiosyncrasies, misunderstandings, and personal complexes of inferiority and grandeurÃ¢â¬ (49). Reflecting upon these miscalculations, Robert F. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Thirteen Days documents the Cuban Missile Crisis and catalogues the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s contemplative action amidst potential disaster.Considering the misjudgment that drove conflict in the early twentieth century, and the socio-technological paradigm shift of war, President Kennedy found remedy in the maintenance of open channels of external communication, while regarding the international domino effect of each action, and exhibiting constant skepticism in pursuit of a peaceful resolution. German sociologist Max Weber wrote of the Great War, Ã¢â¬Å"this war, with all its ghastl iness, is nevertheless grand and wonderful. It is worth experiencingÃ¢â¬ (EP 768).Embellishing the heroism of warfare, Weber reflects a common acceptance of war in the early twentieth century as one of sport and necessity. However, with the development of nuclear arms came a paradigm shift concerning war and its role amid international powers. Acknowledging the destructive potential of nuclear warfare, Kennedy adamantly stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We were not going to misjudge or challenge the other side needlessly, or precipitously push our adversaries into a course of action that was not intendedÃ¢â¬ (75).Using historical precedent as his guide, President Kennedy acts upon the belief that war is rarely intentional, while also recognizing the evolving dynamic of war as one of an arms struggle. The application of this lesson exists in KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s resolution to utilize quarantine as opposed to armed conflict at the Soviets UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s initial threat. Foreign ships given orders to re treat would be afforded such an opportunity, any vessel refusing to stop would have its rudders disabled to avoid loss of life, and ships not belonging to the Soviet Union were the irst and only to be boarded, as to not incite a military response. Executing such action demonstrates the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s clear understanding of past misjudgment, and the paradigm shift that now characterized war as something not of sport, but of mass destruction. Robert Kennedy reaffirms such in declaring, Ã¢â¬Å"If we erred, we erred not only for ourselves and our country, but for the lives of those who had never been given an opportunity to play a roleÃ¢â¬ (81). This statement epitomizes the overwhelming burden of nuclear war, and the cognizance necessary to avoid it.Vital to the avoidance of miscalculation and the development of a mutual understanding were open channels of communication during the Cuban Crisis. President Kennedy recognized the importance of consistent communication to evade impu lsive action, and promote logically sound decision-making. Such an example exists in Robert KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Thirteen Days in which Soviet Chairman Khrushchev and President Kennedy exchange messages outlining the guidelines towards peaceful resolution. We must not succumb to petty passions, or to transient things, but should realize that if indeed war should break out, then it would not be in our power to stop it, for such is the logic of warÃ¢â¬ (66). Stated by Khrushchev in pursuit of mutual amity, such communication demonstrates the importance of clarity and transparency under desperate circumstances. This quotation further exhibits recognition of the warped nature of warfare, and acknowledges historyÃ¢â¬â¢s wrongdoings that provoked destruction.President Kennedy concluded deliberations in stating, Ã¢â¬Å"the effect of such a settlement on easing world tensions would enable us to work towards a more general arrangement Ã¢â¬ ¦ the United States is very much interested in red ucing tensions and halting the arms raceÃ¢â¬ (79). The clear and concise nature of this exchange lends praise to the diplomatic nature of KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics, providing both the United States and Soviet Union with the opportunity to ultimately avoid nuclear holocaust. The snowball effect exhibited through the First World War demonstrates the danger of tumbling into conflict through allied obligation and diplomatic stupidity.President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to tactfully neutralize the Cuban Crisis demonstrates an awareness of that danger, and an appreciation for the international domino effect that warfare would generate between nations. Strongly stated by Robert Kennedy, Ã¢â¬Å"we had to be aware of this responsibility at all times, aware that we were deciding for the United States, the Soviet Union, NATO, and for all of mankindÃ¢â¬ (75). Such concern for the global repercussion of warfare can be observed in President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s constant scrutiny of military recom mendations and their effect upon the entire western hemisphere.Seeking alternative solutions to war as well as the approval of global powers, Robert Kennedy further states, Ã¢â¬Å"we were able to establish a firm legal foundation for our action under the OAS charter, and our position around the world was Ã¢â¬ ¦ unanimously supported for a quarantineÃ¢â¬ (40). This diplomatic strategy, founded upon the support of strong European and American allies, aided the United States in considering the implications of all possible courses of action as to ensure a promise of peace for themselves and the global community.A final strategy, central to the diplomatic triumph of the Cuban Missile Crisis, refers to the establishment and success of KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Executive Committee of the National Security Council. While each proposed solution held inherent weaknesses, this committee would allow for constant deliberation, argument, and debate. The ability to scrutinize each proposal reinforced a reasonable decision-making process, thereby diminishing the risk of the impulsive miscalculation or misjudgment that had prompted war only decades earlier.Embodying the significance of the Executive Committee, Robert Kennedy declares, Ã¢â¬Å"everyone had an equal opportunity to express himself and to be heard directly. It was a tremendously advantageous procedure that does not frequently occur within the executive branchÃ¢â¬ (36). Furthermore, President Kennedy is reported to have gone through Ã¢â¬Å"considerable lengths to ensure that he was not insulated from individuals or points of view because of rank or positionÃ¢â¬ (89).While such an arrangement seems idealistic, President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition of all available viewpoints provided an extremely broad base of knowledge upon which to draw conclusions. It was this open-minded and reasonable approach that was heavily lacking prior to the Great Wars of the early twentieth century, thereby leading to global disasters t hat may have been averted under more logical circumstances. The measures taken by President Kennedy, as presented through Robert KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s Thirteen Days, lend overwhelming praise to his diplomatic triumph during the Cuban Missile Crisis.His success is reported as being founded upon the miscalculations of history, and a correction of those past errors in pursuit of peaceful relations. However, the idealistic manner in which the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are portrayed reek of both brotherly admiration and posthumous praise. Such a utopian presentation only serves to diminish President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s heroic role amidst the crisis, and leads the reader to question how pivotal his leadership actually was. A personal memoir of Robert F. Kennedy, Thirteen Days must be read with a grain of salt to properly assess its validity as a historical record.While the President certainly acknowledged the socio-technological paradigm shift of modern warfare in addition to the stupidity from which the First World War emerged, Thirteen Days most obviously dismisses crucial events preceding the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Bay of Pigs Invasion, an unsuccessful attempt by American-trained Cuban refugees to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro, completely contradicts President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed cognizance of the dangers of nuclear war and impulsive military action.The failed invasion, initiated only three months after President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s inauguration, humiliated the Administration and made communist nations distrustful of the United States. In addition, John F. Kennedy is consistently praised throughout his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s memoir for welcoming the viewpoints of not just government administrators, but regular people. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"he wanted the advice of his Cabinet officers, but he also Ã¢â¬ ¦ wished to hear from Tommy ThompsonÃ¢â¬ (89). However, not once throughout KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s memoir does he mention speaking to field soldiers or their names. The generic label of Tommy Thompson reduces the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in such sources, and President Kennedy is even shown to mock military figures in stating, they Ã¢â¬Å"lacked the ability to look beyond the limited military fieldÃ¢â¬ (90). Such evidence cannot be overlooked in determining the validity of President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s success, and reduces the objectivity of this historical source. However, the ultimate success of President KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s historical reflections and peace-seeking measures cannot be denied.While Thirteen Days nearly emits audible applause for his actions, it accurately reports the measures taken to subdue the Cuban Missile Crisis, the effectiveness of quarantine and the importance of bargaining and communication. These actions, prompted through the establishment of the Executive Committee, resulted in the removal of nuclear arms from Cuba and the reestablishment of the global status quo. Rescuing our nation on the brink of nuclear war, the reader h as no choice but to close Thirteen Days with a deeper admiration for the courage and wisdom of President Kennedy.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The athletic sports world has drastically evolved since the beginning of the creation of sports. Athletes are becoming bigger, faster and stronger. The competitive edge has started to increase and guys are looking for ways to enhance their performances. Many turn to repetitive practices and healthier diets, while some turn to protein powder. No matter the method the average athlete is trying their best to propel his or her efforts past previous marks. Most stick to natural remedies, but there are a select few that turn to steroid injections. Steroids have overtaken the sports world and banned many famous athletes from ever competing again. However, they believe the injections arenÃ¢â¬â¢t all that bad. This argument will elucidate on theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This theory is not supported if we have dishonest athletes turning to anabolic steroid usage to beat out competition. In the academic article entitled AthletesÃ¢â¬â¢ Beliefs About and Attitudes Towards Taking Banned P erformance-Enhancing Substances: A Qualitative Study written by authors Derwin K. C. Chan, Sarah J. Hardcastle, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, Robert J. Donovan, James A. Dimmock, and Martin S. Hagger explains that: Evidence suggests that despite comprehensive and ongoing deterrence and detection efforts by antidoping agencies (e.g., World Anti- Doping Agency [WADA]), the use of banned performance-enhancing substances among elite athletes remains pervasive in many sport disciplines (Alaranta et al., 2006; Backhouse, McKenna, Robinson, Atkin, 2009; Laure Binsinger, 2007). In addition to the moral and ethical issues arising from transgression of antidoping legislation, long-term use of many banned performance- enhancing substances confers serious side effects deleterious to the health of athletes (Lentillon-Kaestner, Hagger, Hardcastle, 2012; Pipe Ayotte, 2002) (Chan et al. 241-42). This statement elicits themes likely to affect beliefs and attitudes toward banned performance enhancing substances as they should due to the unfair advantages these drugs bring about. Whenever athletes compete for national competitions or even state competitions the use of steroids and other performance enhancing supplements is